SYRIAN RUE Synonym of: Peganum harmala - L.

The most ancient used plant in global folk medecine is the Soma plant, the original Rue, called Assyrian Rue, or latin Pegunam Harmala. It has been widely used in the Ayurvedi medecine of the Rg Veda, as the Soma plant, and mixed with gold and metorite and special elements. It is the plant of life of the great Zoroaster (Zurathustra), where it was called Haoma, in the Avesta Veda, and was given to him by the "god" Masda, the Wise God of Light, just as Soma was given by Brahma-Manu in the Rg Veda. Since Zoroaster is in the line of ancesters of Gilgamesh known in the actual Sumerian Kings list as King Etana or Atun, who saught the bush of life, the very ancient plant of life may here have been partially identified. It was the most sacred plant of Mohamad, who took the Esphand (Arabic/Persian name for the plant) before receiving the Koran from "God", it is so sacred that 7 angels are placed above its branches. The Holy Esphand castes out the evil spirits, and cures feavour and maleria, in their traditions.

Physical Characteristics: Perennial growing to 0.6m by 0.5m. The fruits are globose capsules with 3 chambers containing many angular blackish seeds. The seeds ripen in September.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

Active Constituents: The pharmacologically active compounds of P. harmala are several alkaloids, which are found especially in the seeds and the roots. These include β-carbolines such as: harmine, harmaline (identical with harmidine), harmalol and harman and quinazoline derivatives: vasicine, vasicinone , peganole, peganidine, desoxypeganine, , The alkaloidal content of the unripe seeds is less than the ripe ones.

Harmaline (harmidine). C13H15ON2 - First isolated by Göbel from the seeds and roots of P. harmala, this is the major alkaloid of this plant. It crystallizes in colorless or pale yellow prisms and is optically inactive. This compound is slightly soluble in water, alcohol and ether, quite soluble in hot alcohol and dilute acids. Its hydrochloride dihydrate, which crystallizes as yellow needles, is moderately soluble in water and alcohol.

Harmine (banisterine). C13H12ON2 - It is present in P. harmala and in some species of Banisteia, viz., B. caapi, Spruce., B. lutea and B. metallicolor. The alkaloid is optically inactive and forms colorless rhombic prisms from methanol. It is slightly soluble in water, alcohol or ether. Solutions of its salts show a deep blue fluorescence. The hydrochloride has been found to be highly active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis [7].

Harmalol. C12H12ON2 - Which occurs in P. harmala crystallizes from water as the trihydrate. It is freely soluble in hot water, acetone or chloroform but only sparingly soluble in benzene. The alkaloid is unstable when exposed to air. Its methyl ether is harmaline [7].

Harman. C12H10N2 - This related β-carboline alkaloid, which is first isolated from the bark of Arariba rubra, indigenous to Brazil; however its existence in P. harmala is not reported. This alkaloid is crystallized from several organic solvents as colorless prisms. It is readily soluble in methanol, alcohol, acetone, chloroform, or ether but only moderately so in hot water. It dissolves in mineral acids and exhibits a blue-violet fluorescence [7].

Vasicine (peganine). C13H15ON2 - This quinazoline alkaloid was first isolated from the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees by Hooper and subsequently discovered in P. harmala under the name of Peganine. The base is optically inactive although the isolation of (-)-form from the fresh leaves of A. vasica and flowers and stems of P. harmala has been reported. The salts are readily obtained as crystals. The crude drug from A. vasica is used in India as a remedy for asthma and the pure alkaloid acts as a bronchodilator [8].

Vasicinone. C11H10O2N2 - A further alkaloid present in Adhatoda vasica Nees and P. harmala. The base forms colorless crystals from 95% alcohol. It has [α]22 -100° (c = 0.5 in CHCl3) and the UV spectrum has absorption maxima at 227, 272, 302 and 315 nm. The alkaloid yields crystalline salts with mineral acids. It is an active bronchodilator [8].

In the Petra mystery rites and schools of alchemy, the plant was central in their beverage of illumination and restoration, which again was mixed with gold and other alchemical bu-products, as with Zoroaster, who was also known as Chem the original Alchemist and CHEMist. And with the modern discoveries now of the importance of beta carbolines, in elimenating disease causing organisms, much of this is coming into the light of a form of science confirmation. In the last few years leaps and bounds have been made in the analysis of the Pinoline and harmine (a related beta carboline with a 7 methoxy postion rather than a 6 methoxy position), in it s affect on the body. Here follow some examples. It was found that:

 

PINOLINE CURES DERMATOSIS IS ANTI-FUNGAL & ANTI BACTERIAL

The extract of Peganum harmala (Rutaceae) was used topically to treat certain dermatoses of inflammatory nature. Results were encouraging and proved the antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic and probably antiprotozoal effects of the extract.

-Peganum harmala: its use in certain dermatoses. El-Saad El-Rifaie M

 

 

EFFECT OF PEGANUM HARMALA EXTRACT ON ROOT TIPS OF ALLIUM CEPA

Treatment with Peganum harmala extract remarkably increased the mitotic index in Allium cepa root tips with increasing treatment duration at all exposure times used and with almost all concentrations. The extract caused a relatively high increase in the mitotic index after a long period of treatment with some low concentrations.

­Dr. SM Abderrahman, Department of Biological Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan.Cytobios 1997;90(362-363):171-4

 

Here now follow further remarkable anti-parasitical and anti-microbial tests on animals, which demonstrate the curative power of Soma. Since these living organisms, are a prime contributer, if not instigator of immiune break down and disease's in general, now well popularised by Dr. Hulda Clark et al, and pioneering by the late scientists Dr. William Rife, and his Rife frequency generator, to eliminate parasites and bacterieas.

It appears that Pinoline and the beta carbolines act like a Rie generator produced by the body itself, and in the plant resonating with the body. Since 8 Hz gathers all wave lengths, long and short , into a Golden Mean alignment, or frequency cascade, that includes the entire spectrum, when maintianed for any length of time, and hence eliminates the MHZ range bacterias and parasites, coherently, whilst bridging it to the * hz pulse of the planet and universe. This is much more natural and interactive medecine, that requires conscious participation.

Look at these astounding cases for the evidence of the Third Eye's own nano molecul Rife generator, that is interactive with * Hz Alpha Brain Waves, induced by cardio rythms of coherence (compassionate love):

 Trop Anim Health Prod 1997 Nov;29(4 Suppl):72S-76S

 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE TREATMENT OF NATURAL HAEMOSPORIDIA INFECTIONS BY TOTAL ALKALOID OF PEGANUM HARMALA L. IN CATTLE.

Eighty two cattle naturally infected with haemosporidians were treated with total alkaloid hydrochloride of Peganum harmale L. (0.5 mg/kg/day).

Fifty eight cases with Theileria sergenti showed a cure rate of 86%; thirteen cases with Theileria annulata showed a cure rate of 85%; eight cattle infected with Babesia bigemina showed a cure rate of 88% and three cases of Anaplasma marginale were completely cured.

The results suggested that the curative effect of total alkaloid of P. harmale was better than that of diminazene aceturate and produced minimal side effects. The alkaloid could also be administered to pregnant animals. It was concluded that the total alkaloid of P. harmale showed a marked effect as a treatment for haemosporidican infections in cattle.

-Hu T, Fan B, Liang J, Zhao S, Dang P, Gao F, Dong M, Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China. PMID: 9512749, UI: 98173905

 

EFFECT OF TOTAL ALKALOID OF PEGANUM HARMALA L. IN THE TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL HAEMOSPORIDIAN INFECTIONS IN CATTLE.

Cattle experimentally infected with Babesia bigemina or Theileria sergenti or mixed infestations of the two parasites were treated with Total Alkaloid of Peganum harmala L.

The results showed that treatment was effective against B. bigemina infection, had a marked effect on the course of infection with T. sergenti and some effect on the course of the mixed infection.

-Fan B, Liang J, Men J, Gao F, Li G, Zhao S, Hu T, Dang P, Zhang L. Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China. Trop Anim Health Prod 1997 Nov;29(4 Suppl):77S-83S

 

Anti-microbial properties were also demonstrated in the paper :

 

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FROM HIGHER PLANTS. ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FROM PEGANUM HARMALA SEEDS.

-Al-Shamma A, Drake S, Flynn DL, Mitscher LA, Park YH, Rao GS, Simpson A, Swayze JK, Veysoglu T, Wu ST

With what follows, the alchemical tradition which asserted that the Rue was a neutraliser of snake poisen, can be confirmed. Rue,s beta carbolines demonstrate neutrality against poisen. It was upheald for a long time, in the alchemical traditions, that Christ was given Gal or snake poisen, which is also mentioned in the Nag Hammadi Gnostic gospells, found in Egypt. And that the vinagger he received on the cross, before "giving up his Spirit", was the Vinagger of the Four Theifs, famous in ALchemy, and named after Christ, whose central ingedrient is Pegunam Harmala.

It was also the major treatment and protections against the plague, with the above points, and wha now follows, this anti-plague protection and snake poisen neutralisation properties of the Soma plant (Soma = body, Christ body is Soma in Greek, "eat my body"), are even more astounding. Perhaps all of these elements may aid to explain my the early Gnostic based art, had the apostles throwing our demons from people, after giving them something to drink, and they are shown vomiting out the demons (parasites), just as larger doses of Harmala induce, when one's stomach in invested with toxins, and micro-invaders. Such an plant could be seen as an exorcists par se, and it was precisely used as such, and is to this day, in the Koran Islamic traditions.

 

SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDRO-BETA-CARBOLINE DERIVATIVES.:

A series of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carbolines has been synthesized and evaluated for cerebral protecting effects against lipid peroxidation and potassium cyanide intoxication in mice. Most of the compounds synthesized had potent effects against lipid peroxidation. Among them, 1- (3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta- carboline was found to have a combination of potent effects against both lipid peroxidation and potassium cyanide intoxication. Structure-activity relationships are discussed.

-Kawashima Y; Horiguchi A; Taguchi M; Tuyuki Y; Karasawa Y; Araki H; Hatayama K: A-4627. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo): 43:5:783-7 (1995)

 

 

Furthermore, the Soma Harmal plant, also was found to contain very important flavinoids for health and healing:

 

FOUR FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES FROM PEGANUM HARMALA

The aerial parts of Peganum harmala yielded four new flavonoids: acacetin 7-O-rhamnoside,7-O-[6"-O-glucosyl-2"-O-(3'''-acetylrhamnosyl)glucoside and 7-O-(2'''-O-rhamnosyl-2"-O-glucosylglucoside), and the glycoflavone 2'''-O-rhamnosyl-2"-O-glucosylcytisoside.

-Sharaf M, el-Ansari MA, Matlin SA, Saleh NA, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. PMID: 9014375, UI: 97166655

 

Not only does harmine and Pinoline instigate all of the above, but it is the perfect anit-depresent, without the dangerous side affects of Prozac and other serotonine based drugs. Hence, healthy pineal gland activity, by practise of Apha wave entrainment, at 8 Hz, instigated by superlearning techniques, Sylva Mind Method, Mental Photography, Einstein Focusing Technique and its expanded daughter field Image Streaming, along with mediation and Taoist martial arts such as Tai Chi and Chi Kung, and coherent emotion and breath patterns, aid in pineal gland Pinoline turn-over.

"Meditation" is simply an alpha brain wave entrainment technique, which synchronises the two brain heme-spheres into 8 Hz, but the additional afect is that the closing of the eyes, stops Melatonin flow leakage to the body, and makes it saturate the neo-cortex, and hence there is an increased production of Meltaonin and Pinoline. Note that this does not stop flow to the body, but instigates flow to the brain.

This gives an extra impetous to Meditation, several times a day, as an essential health excercise, appart from an energiser, a coffee of its own, and an aidive tool for mental integration of daily duties. The extra Pinoline and other beta carboline levels that results, aid the body cells to replicate, and micro-organisms, parasites, fungoids, and bacteria's, and related harmfull invaders, to be neutralised.

Appart from the extra melatonin and Pinoline giving the beneficent anti-oxident properties to the body. The most superior anti-oxidents the body can produce. So this is not only a rest break, an excercise sesion, and integration session, an energiser, and a body tuner, it is also a vitamine break, since most vitamins like C, A and E, act as anti-oxidents.

Furthermore, it is an anti-depressent, increasing Serotonin (5-HT) tunrover, and recycling other essential neurotransmitters. Hence an ecological green agent in the brain and body, aiding the recycling of essential neurotranmitter hormones:

 

BINDING OF PINOLINE ON THE 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE TRANSPORTER: COMPETITIVE INTERACTION WITH [3H] CITALOPRAM

Pinoline (6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline) is a naturally occurring compound in the mammalian body which inhibits 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake and exerts antidepressant-like behavioural effects in rats.

The present study investigates the effects of pinoline on [3H] citalopram binding to the 5-HT transporter on rat brain. Our experiments revealed that pinoline inhibits [3H] citalopram binding with IC50 1255 +/- 167 nM and Ki 572 +/- 76 nM; Hill coefficient for inhibition was close to 1. In saturation experiments, pinoline co-incubated with [3H] citalopram, increased dose-dependently the Kd value but had no effect on the Bmax value of [3H] citalopram binding.

Micromolar concentrations of pinoline did not have influence on the dissociation rate of specifically bound [3H] citalopram.

Binding parameters of [3H] citalopram did not differ significantly in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats treated for 10 days with pinoline or vehicle. These results indicate that pinoline did not have any modulative influence on the activity of 5-HT transporter and it interacts competitively with citalopram on the substrate recognition site of the 5-HT transporter.

-Pähkla R; Rägo L; Callaway JJ; Airaksinen MM: A-4626. Pharmacol Toxicol: 80:3:122-6 (1997)

 

Another test result demonstrated similar affects on Serotonin 5-hydroxy-Tryptamine (5-HT), as further evidence of its anti-depresent properties:

 

MAJOR PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF 6-METHOXYTETRAHYDRO-BETA- CARBOLINE, A DRUG ELEVATING THE TISSUE 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE LEVEL.

Major pharmacological effects of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4- tetrahydro-beta-carboline (6-methoxytryptoline, 6-MeOTHBC) are described. It seemed to have a weak effect of its own on 5-HT-receptors.

It is concluded that most of the effects, like the increase of rectal temperature after peripheral administration and decrease and then increase after intrahypothalamic application as well as the antagonism of the group toxicity of amphetamine without effect on norepinephrine toxicity or barbiturate sleeping time, can result from the increase of tissue 5-HT-concentration and/or inhibition of 5-HT-uptake.

-Airaksinen MM; Ho BT; An R; Taylor D: A-4634. Arzneimittelforschung: 28:1:42-6 (1978)

 

 RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GAMMA-HARMINE AND ITS CARBOLINE ANALOGUES

Gamma-Harmine (I), harmine (II) and harmaline (III) were isolated from Peganum harmala L. (Zygophylaceae).

Tests were conducted with mice to detect whether gamma-harmine (a new compound), harmine, harmol (IV) and harmalol (V) are effective radioprotective compounds against gamma-ray irradiation.

Intraperitoneal injection of the hydrochlorides of the four alkaloids 50-80 mg.kg-1 X 1 in NIH male mice 30-45 minutes before 8.6-9.7 Gy whole body 60Co irradiation significantly increased the survival effects (1.33-2.61) and 30-day survival survival rate in comparison with control mice.

The results indicate that gamma-harmine exhibited relatively good radioprotective effect. gamma-harmine is the first alkaloid isolated from a plant having protective effects against whole-body lethal irradiation in mice.

-Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1995;30(9):715-7. [Article in Chinese] Li GW, Liang PG, Pan GY Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou.

HARMALA & LEUKEMIA

 

This study was conducted to, one, establish a program to study by in vitro and/or in vivo techniques, the antineoplastic activity of natural plant products and two, to utilize these techniques to study the extracts of two plants, Prunus armeniaca (PA) and Peganum harmala (PH).

Three in vitro procedures,

(a) The growth inhibition of murine P388 leukemia cells in culture,

(b) the assay of cytotoxicity utilizing Cr51 labeled P388 cells and

(c) the assay of P388 colony forming units (CFU) in soft agar were employed and compared with in vivo studies conducted in CD2F1 mice implanted with P388 or L1210 leukemia cells.

The seeds of Pegunam Harmala were extracted into 70% ethanol and then either extracted into chloroform :

(Phase I) or ultracentrifuged and fractionated

(Phase II) into three fractions:

(a) crude

(b) less than 300,000 MW ('300M') and

(c) less than 100,000 MW ('100M').

 

When assayed for inhibition of P388 colony forming units (CFU) in soft agar, PH [Pegunam Harmala] Phase II '300M' showed a marked decrease in CFU with a greater than 98% reduction of CFU at a concentration of 5 ug/ml.

This method was more indicative of followup in vivo studies in that it measures both direct cytotoxicity and inhibition of replication. Phase I extracts of PH showed marked increases in lifespan (ILS) of CD2F1 mice bearing p388 tumors (ILS of 36% at a total dose of 300 mg/kg) and L1210 tumors (ILS of 33% at a total dose of 300 mg/kg). Testing of the fractionated Phase II extract of PH gave evidence to show that the active ingredient is less than 300,000 MW and!/reater than 100,000 MW.

--DISS ABSTR INT (SCI), Adams SM THE ANTINEOPLASTIC EFFECTS OF PRUNUS ARMENIACA AND PEGANUM HARMALA IN MURINE P388 AND L1210 LEUKEMIA MODELS In: Diss Abstr Int (Sci) (1983) 44(4):1052-B 1983

 

PEGANUM HARMALA: ITS USE IN CERTAIN DERMATOSES

The extract of Peganum harmala (Rutaceae) was used topically to treat certain dermatoses of inflammatory nature. Results were encouraging and proved the antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic and probably antiprotozoal effects of the extract. Registry Numbers: 304-21-2 (harmaline) 442-51-3 (harmine).

-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, El-Saad El-Rifaie M , In: Int J Dermatol (1980 May) 19(4):221-2

ISSN: 0011-9059

 

ABORTIFACIENT POTENTIAL FOR THE EPIGEAL PARTS OF PEGANUM HARMALA.

The effect of methanol and acetone extracts of the epigeal parts of Peganum harmala, a common medicinal plant among Bedouins in Israel, was studied on several parameters of reproduction in female rats.

The methanol extract at a dose of 2.5 g/kg/day, offered in food or in drinking suspension for 30 days, significantly prolonged diestrus by 1.0 day. The methanol extracts at doses of 2.0, 2.5 and 3.5 g/kg/day appeared to produce a dose-dependent significant decrease in litter size. No change in the physical and nutritional status of the animals and no adverse toxicological effects were observed.

-JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY Shapira Z Terkel J Egozi Y Nyska A Friedman J, In: J Ethnopharmacol (1989 Dec) 27(3):319-25 ISSN: 0378-8741.

 

This is just a good selection of a mountain of other astonishing facts, now gathered. Including harmine as an NMDA antogonist, and hence an anti-strok medecine, which is used to this day by the Mandean Gnostic Christians, the Gnostics simulated death, a prevented death by taking Harmala. In palestine, including by the village north of Bethlahem, called Harmala, they still use Harmala as an anti-stroke medecine. It prevents calcium ions from flooding the brain, and hence prevents cell death, thus one does not die on the cross, which is death by stroke, through calcium inflooding through the NMDA sites.

 

L-deprenyl, structurally related both to harmala alkaloids, has shown promise in experiments to reverse aging, extend life-span to 160 years (in animal studies) and heighten cognitive function, and very well might out-perform AZT, etc. for HIV-infected individuals who are asymptomatic. Researchers have discovered endogenous harmala alkaloids a number of times, notably McIsaac in 1961 and Linneas of NYU again in the early '80's, although "he never published because he couldn't figure out what it did," according to Molliver. They are beta-carbolines; some, like nor-harmane, and may play a role in delerium tremens., as well as acting like a natural MK801 to prevent ischemia during the NDE.

Making the statement "This is my blood" literally true.

 

Edible Uses

Edible Uses: Condiment; Oil.

Seed - used as a spice and purifying agent[105, 177, 183, 238]. Some caution is advised because the seed has narcotic properties, inducing a sense of euphoria and releasing inhibitions[169]. An edible oil is obtained from the seed[46, 61].

Medicinal Uses

The fruit and seed are digestive, diuretic, hallucinogenic, narcotic and uterine stimulant[192, 238]. They are taken internally in the treatment of stomach complaints, urinary and sexual disorders, epilepsy, menstrual problems, mental and nervous illnesses[238]. The seed has also been used as an anthelmintic in order to rid the body of tapeworms[240]. This remedy should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a qualified practitioner since excessive doses cause vomiting and hallucinations[238]. The seeds contain the substance 'harmine'(Other Names: 9H-Pyrido[3,4-b]indole, 7-methoxy-1-methyl-; Banisterin; Banisterine; Garmin; Harmin; Leucoharmine; Telepathien; Telepathin; Telepathine; Yagein; Yageine; Yajeine; 6-Methoxyharman; 7-Methoxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido(3,4-b)indole; 1-Methyl-7-methoxy-β-carboline; 7-Methoxy-1-methyl-9H-beta-carboline) which is being used in research into mental disease, encephalitis and inflammation of the brain[192]. Small quantities stimulate the brain and are said to be therapeutic, but in excess harmine depresses the central nervous system[192]. A crude preparation of the seed is more effective than an extract because of the presence of related indoles[192]. Consumption of the seed in quantity induces a sense of euphoria and releases inhibitions. It has been used in the past as a truth drug[169, 187]. The oil obtained from the seed is said to be aphrodisiac[192]. The oil is also said to have galactogogue, ophthalmic, soporific and vermifuge properties[192]. The seed is used externally in the treatment of haemorrhoids and baldness[238]. The whole plant is said to be abortifacient, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue and galactogogue[240]. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of rheumatism[240]. The root has been used as a parasiticide in order to kill body lice[240]. It is also used internally in the treatment of rheumatism and nervous conditions[254].

Other Uses

A red dye is obtained from the seed[46, 61]. It is widely used in Western Asia, especially as a colouring for carpets[192]. The ripe seed contains 3.8 - 5.8% of the alkaloids harmine, harmaline, harmalol and peganine[240]. Ineffective as a contact poison, they are active in vapour form where they are effective against algae, in higher concentrations to water animals and lethal to moulds, bacteria and intestinal parasites[240]. The seed is used as an incense[145].

 

References

[7]Glasby JS. Encyclopedia of the alkaloids. London: Plenum Press; 1978. p. 58-661.

[8]Glasby JS. Encyclopedia of the alkaloids. London: Plenum Press; 1978. p. 1367.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.

[50] ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press 1964
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.

[145] Singh. Dr. G. and Kachroo. Prof. Dr. P. Forest Flora of Srinagar. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh 1976
A good flora of the western Himalayas but poorly illustrated. Some information on plant uses.

[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.

[187] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books 1991 ISBN 0-330-30936-9
Photographs of over 3,000 species and cultivars of ornamental plants together with brief cultivation notes, details of habitat etc.

[192] Emboden. W. Narcotic Plants Studio Vista 1979 ISBN 0-289-70864-8
A lot of details about the history, chemistry and use of narcotic plants, including hallucinogens, stimulants, inebriants and hypnotics.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.

[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

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